1/Signal integrity problem
Good signal integrity means that the signal responds with the correct timing and voltage level values when needed. Conversely, when the signal does not respond properly, a signal integrity problem occurs. Signal integrity problems can cause or directly lead to signal distortion, timing errors, incorrect data, address and control lines, and system malfunctions, even system crashes. Signal integrity issues are not caused by a single factor, but in board-level design. A combination of factors. The switching speed of the IC, incorrect layout of the termination components, or incorrect wiring of high-speed signals can cause signal integrity problems. The main signal integrity issues include: delay, reflection, synchronous switching noise, oscillation, ground bounce, crosstalk, and more.
2/Definition of signal integrity
Signal integrity is the ability of a signal to respond at the correct timing and voltage in a circuit. It is a state in which the signal is not damaged. It represents the quality of the signal on the signal line.